By: Osman Nuri Topbaş
Source: Osman Nuri Topbaş
Here are the main guidelines that need to be followed for a mabrur or accepted and praised Hajj or Umrah:
- To make a sincere intention for Hajj or Umrah and abandon contrary intentions and behaviors:
In order to attain the pleasure of Allah the Almighty and benefit from the Divine blessings, we should sincerely intend to perform our pilgrimage and we should also be able to promise to Allah the Almighty that we will purify our souls and abandon our selfish desires. In those sacred places, we should especially forget our beings and not focus on our inner selves. Those who perform their pilgrimage in such a state of mind will be able to attain Divine mercy and blessings. Such a pilgrim can also be a guest in the paradise of wisdom and secrets. After this first step, one should do the following:
- While taking off the worldly garment in order to put on ihram (or the special garments of pilgrimage), one should also take everything other than Allah out of his heart.
One of the manifestations of giving our promise to Allah and making sincere intention for the fulfillment of our pilgrimage just for the sake of Allah is to get rid of all kinds of passions in our heart, like desire for wealth, fame and rank. When we take off our clothes to wear ihram, we also need to take out such feelings from our heart and put on the garment of piety. Because of this, Allah the Almighty notes that:
“He will indeed be successful who purifies it [his soul]” (al-Shams 91; 9)
While one is in those sacred lands, one should abstain from occupying oneself with worldly activities and walking around the markets as much as possible. Being busy with such actions loosens the soul’s connection with spirituality and produces heedlessness. Such a focus on worldly goods and needs makes it hard to benefit from the spiritual atmosphere of those blessed lands.
When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was asked about staying in Mecca after the completion of pilgrimage, he said that:
“Mecca is not a place to stay. After completing the rituals of pilgrimage there are (only) three days to stay in Mecca for those immigrants who come to it from outside.” (Ahmad, IV, 339) This statement, even though it refers to the Muhajirun (those who emigrated from Mecca) of the time, still supports the above mentioned fact. Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) also advised the pilgrims to go back to their hometowns after performing their obligation in order to not give any harm to their feelings of respect for Mecca.
One should turn his heart to the Lord of the Ka’bah during Hajj and Umrah and comprehend the meaning of the verse “…We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.” (Qaf 50; 16). It is also necessary to know that nothing can be hidden from Allah as it is expressed in another verse: “…and know that Allah comes in between a man and his heart…” (al-Anfal 8; 24) In other words one should get rid of the temporary desires of this world and try to keep his heart busy with Allah the Almighty as much as possible. This is because the essence of pilgrimage is:
- To get physically and spiritually cleansed:
Expressing the result of righteous deeds performed during pilgrimage, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) noted the objectives of this blessed act of worship as follows:
“Combine the performance of Hajj (major pilgrimage) and Umrah (minor pilgrimage), for they eliminate the sins just as the bellows eliminate rust from iron.” (Nasai, Manasik, 6; Ibn Majah, Manasik, 3)
Umrah, or minor pilgrimage, which is advised to be combined with Hajj, is a very significant act of worship. It purifies the believers’ hearts and refreshes their faith in Allah.
Unlike Hajj, which has to be performed during specific days of the year and can be performed only once in a year, it is possible to perform Umrah as many times as is possible. Because of its merits, Umrah is called the minor pilgrimage. One should also understand the meaning of this meritorious act of worship very well.
Umar b. al-Khattab tells us (may Allah be pleased with him):
“I sought permission of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to perform minor pilgrimage. He gave me permission and said:
“My brother, do not forget me in your supplication.”(Tirmidhi, Daawat, 109/3562)
Upon hearing these words Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) described his happiness as follows:
“These words of the Prophet pleased me so much that I would not have been more pleased if I were given the whole world.” (Abu Dawud, Witr, 23/1498)
Along with its other merits, this example also points out the higher probability of the acceptance of the supplications during Umrah than other times. Therefore, sincere supplications said during an Umrah attract great spiritual rewards.
Umrah’s performed after Hajj and especially during the month of Ramadan are a means of spiritual purification. In fact, our beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) stated that: “Umrah during the month of Ramadan would suffice for Hajj or Hajj along with me.” (see. Bukhari, Umrah, 4; Muslim, Hajj, 221)
When the object of Hajj and Umrah becomes to attain such great rewards, then there should be some other significant matters that a pilgrim should be careful about, such as:
- To abstain from the unlawful and the doubtful things, to enter the sacred places with utmost respect, and to show the proper esteem to the religious symbols.
It should be primarily mentioned that all the good deeds of worship have to be done out of lawful gains; because, the spiritual benefits of the acts of worship can be achieved only by a body grown by lawful provisions. The following saying of the Prophet is very remarkable in this regard:
“Whoever visits this House by earnings from unlawful sources leaves the obedience to Allah. When this person intends to perform pilgrimage, gets on his ride, begins his journey, and then says: “Labbaik, Allahumma Labbaik! (Here I am at Your service, O Allah! Here I am at Your service),” an announcer from heaven calls:
“There is no Labbaik or sa’daik (acceptance) for you. Because your earnings are unlawful, your food is unlawfu, and your ride is unlawful. Go back with no rewards. Be sad for you will face what you do not like.”
However when someone sets out for a pilgrimage journey by spending lawful earnings, gets on his ride and says “Labbaik, Allahumma Labbaik! (Here I am at Your service, O Allah! Here I am at Your service),” an announcer from heaven calls:
“Labbaik and sa’daik! I have responded to your call, for your ride is lawful, garments are lawful, and food is lawful. Go back to your home with great rewards earned and with no sin committed. Be happy for you will face the thing with which you will be happy and delighted.”(Haythami, III, 209-210)
In accordance with this tradition, those who go to pilgrimage and say “Labbaik” just by tip of their tongue will get no benefit from their journey other than the words “No Labbaik.”
This is why lawful gain is the first condition of pilgrimage. After that a sincere heart comes next. Every Labbaik or the phrase “O Allah! Here I am at Your service” coming out of one’s mouth should burn his heart with love and yearning. The sounds of Labbaik get the servant closer to Allah the Almighty, but the empty and idle talks bare no results. This is why when the Prophet’s grandson Hussain (may Allah be pleased with him) recited the phrase “Labbaik,” he would grow pale out of his concern: “what if I get “La labbaik” as a reward.”
There are also some prohibitions that believers must abstain from. Allah the Almighty says in the Qur’an:
“The pilgrimage is (in) the well-known months, and whoever is minded to perform the pilgrimage therein (let him remember that) there is (to be) no lewdness nor abuse nor angry conversation on the pilgrimage. And whatsoever good you do Allah knows it. So make provision for yourselves (hereafter); for the best provision is to ward off evil. Therefore keep your duty unto Me, O men of understanding.”(al-Baqara 2; 197)
In this respect we should also remember that one should not just stay away from carnal desires such as lewdness, abuse and angry conversations during pilgrimage, but one should also be very careful not to hurt the servants of Allah. Because of the crowds, pilgrims are always under the risk of hurting one another in these places. In order to avoid this risk, one should especially be attentive during circumambulation and should not try to go in the opposite direction of the people going around the Ka’bah.
We should also be careful about the borders of modesty in places as the Ka’bah or hotel elevators, where men and women intermingle. We need to pay attention to maintaining order and dignity in entering and exiting the mosque. In these sacred places we should not forget that it is forbidden even to pick up grass. Everything we do may take us closer to Allah the Almighty and we should endeavor that our harsh and impolite actions may be turned into acts of love, mercy, kindness, and elegance. One should not forget that just like the good deeds, sins and misdeeds will receive their retribution.
Such sensitivities were among the subtleties that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) emphasized in his blessed life. One day He (peace be upon him) told Umar (may Allah be pleased with him):
“O Umar! You are a strong man. Do not push people and squeeze the weak to get closer to the black stone. Neither disturb nor be disturbed! If the mosque is empty, you may go and kiss it, otherwise just make the gesture of rubbing and kissing it with your hand. Pass by it saying takbirs٭ and tahlils٭٭.”(Haythami, III, 241; Ahmad, I, 28)
As a manifestation of this state of mind, Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) once addressed to the respected Ka’bah saying:
“How great you are (O Ka’bah)! How glorious you are! But in the presence of Allah a true believer’s esteem is even greater than yours.” (Tirmidhi, Birr, 85)
Therefore, a believer should be careful not to hurt anyone in those sacred places. He or she should also pay attention to his or her inner and outer manners. The object of pilgrimage is to show respect to those blessed places and to improve one’s spiritual state by remembering the incidents that took place there. It is expressed in a Qur’anic verse:
“…and whoever respects the signs of Allah, this surely is (the outcome) of the piety of hearts.” (al-Hajj 22; 32)
Therefore, ritual prayers, mosques, the Holy Qur’an, the call for prayer, the Respected Ka’bah, the hills of Safa and Marwa, and many other sacred places are all symbols of Allah the Almighty. Believers should especially be respectful of these symbols during pilgrimage.
One should avoid inappropriate behaviors like sitting or lying down by stretching the legs towards the Ka’bah, making meaningless talks and reciting the Qur’an in an irrespective manner and leaving it on the ground.
Moreover, in those holy places we should also endeavor to help those who are in need. We need to share the sufferings of the wayfarer, the sick, those who lose their financial means, or those who lose one of their relatives. This is a manifestation of the lofty attributes, such as mercy, compassion, and altruism, which a believing heart is required to have. We should also try not to break but to restore the heart remembering that it is the place of Divine sight.
In his following lines Jalal al-Din Rumi (may Allah bless his secret) eloquently elaborates on how the reality of pilgrimage can be understood only with a sensitive and soft heart:
“Bayazíd, the Shaykh of the community, was hurrying to Mecca for the major pilgrimage (Hajj) and the minor (Umrah). In every city to which he went he would at first make search after the venerable (saints). He would roam about, asking, “is there anybody in this town who has (spiritual) insight?” He was aware of the necessity to look for and find the friends of Allah for Allah has said,
“…if you know this not, ask of those who possess the Message…” (al-Anbiya 21; 7)
… Even Moses (peace be upon him) was ordered to visit Khizr who had the esoteric knowledge. So Bayazíd, on his journey (to the Ka‘ba), sought much to find someone that was the Khizr of his time. He espied an old man with a stature bent like the new moon; he saw in him the majesty and lofty speech of holy men; His eyes sightless and his heart illumined as the sun…
He (Bayazíd) sat down before him and asked about his condition; he found him to be a dervish and also a family man. He (the old man) said, “Where are you going, O Bayazíd? To what place are you taking this travel baggage (or your body) in this strange land?”
Bayazíd answered, “I start for the Ka’bah at daybreak.” “Eh,” cried the other, “what have you got as provisions for the road?”
“I have two hundred silver dirhems,” said he; “look, (they are) tied fast in the corner of my cloak.” The old man said:
“Distribute some of that money to the needy and destitute for the sake of Allah. Go into their hearts and get their prayers so that your soul’s horizon gets cleared. Attain an everlasting life. Make your soul go to pilgrimage first. Then continue your pilgrimage with this sensitive heart.
Because the Ka’bah is Allah’s House of Birr (That is to say it is a place of mercy that takes a servant to the perfection of faith and gets him closer to Allah.) It is a house to which paying a visit is obligatory as one of the requirements of Islam. However, the human heart is a treasure of secrets.
The Ka’bah is the building of Abraham the son of Azar; whereas the heart is the loci of Allah the Almighty.
If you have insight, then circumambulate the Ka’bah of the heart. Soul is the real meaning of Ka’bah, which, you think, is built from sand and stones. (In other words your heart gets closer to your Lord by means of it.)
Allah the Almighty has ordered you to circumambulate the physical Ka’bah in order for you to achieve a purified and cleansed Ka’bah of heart.
Know this well that pilgrimage is an obligation that you must fulfill; but you should also know that if you hurt and break a heart which is the place of Divine sight, your sins could not be cleared by the rewards of your journey even if you do it on foot.
Bayazíd gave heed to those mystic sayings, and put them in his ear as a golden ring. Through him (the old man), Bayazíd came into an increase (of spiritual endowment): the adept at last attained unto the end.”(Mathnawi, II, verses: 2218-2251)
Rumi, who directs the souls to the straight path with this and other similar beautiful examples, addresses to those who would like to go to those sacred lands:
“When it is the time of pilgrimage, go there to visit and circumambulate the Ka’bah. If you go there with this intention, you can see the realities of Mecca.”
Rumi’s reason for giving this specific example is that pilgrimage is a very sensitive act of worship.
This is why one should set out for one’s pilgrimage journey only after making a spiritual preparation.
Major and minor pilgrimage performed without these feelings will not bear the results expected from them. This is why all pilgrimages have to be performed with such a feeling heart that this act of worship should be turned into an effort worthy of attaining a share of the elegance of the angels. This is also why pilgrims in their sacred garments must not hunt animals, pick up grass, or pluck even a single hair. Those who put on their special pilgrimage garments (ihram) perceive the necessity of abstaining from unlawful and doubtful things by means of staying away from lawful things for a certain period of time during their pilgrimage. They realize the need to show mercy, compassion and kindness to the creation and especially not to break any hearts out of respect for their Creator.
The most important task in both major and minor pilgrimage is to spend our breaths and limited time on this earth in doing the most valuable of deeds. We should meticulously abstain from wasting our time in searching out other people’s deficiencies and mistakes, which is none of our business. Our state during pilgrimage also reflects the level of our hearts’ sensitivity and the deepness of our spirituality.
Believers should not look down and feel hatred and reproach towards their brothers and sisters in Islam; because one cannot know, especially in those sacred places, who is in what state. What is in the heart is unknown to human eyes but surely known by Allah the Almighty.
The following incident experienced by Khalid al-Baghdadi (may Allah bless his secret) before joining the Sufi path is a meaningful one in this context:
Khalid al-Baghdadi (may Allah bless his secret) once started out for a journey to perform pilgrimage and arrived at Medina. There he met a benevolent looking person. Khalid al-Baghdadi was influenced by this friend of Allah from Yemen and began to ask advice from him like an ignorant person asks questions to a scholar. The man replied:
“O Khalid! When you arrive at Mecca, if you see someone acting inappropriately in the Ka’bah, do not be quick to judge him and reach the wrong conclusions. Keep your eyes and heart away from inquiring about other people’s states. Be busy adorning your inner world.”
Even though these words looked like an implicit warning to Khalid al-Baghdadi (may Allah bless his secret), in reality they were the signs of a mysterious connection between him and the man who was going to take him through the spiritual stations.
When Khalid al-Baghdadi arrived at Mecca, he forgot the old man’s warnings because of the spiritual atmosphere of Mecca. On a Friday, he saw a strange and messy looking dervish, who had turned his back to the Ka’bah and was gazing at him. Khalid al-Baghdadi thought:
“What a heedless man! He has rudely turned his back to the Ka’bah. He is unaware of the greatness of this blessed place.”
Just then the man, whose chest was towards the Khalid’s chest, told him:
“O Khalid! Do not you know showing respect to a believer is more meritorious than showing respect to Ka’bah? Because the heart is the place of Divine sight. A pure and strong heart is the house of Allah. Remember the advice made by the righteous man in Medina…”
Upon these words Khalid al-Baghdadi (may Allah bless his secret) realized his mistake and understood that this man was a great saint. He apologized to him and asked:
“O righteous man! Please help me and accept me as your disciple.” The mysterious dervish looked at the horizon and replied:
“Your discipline does not belong to me. You will achieve perfection under the supervision of Abdullah Pir-i Dahlawi from the city of Delhi in India. May Allah grant you success! …”
In this context, I would also like to narrate the following recommendations of my father Musa Topbas (may Allah bless his secret):
“Below is my advice to the travelers of pilgrimage: always maintain your reverence. Be busy with your inner world. Do not waste your time with useless things. Try to benefit from the spiritual manifestations in those sacred places.
Of course, by going to pilgrimage a believer’s spirituality unknowingly improves. Those who do good deeds and give in charity are usually from those who repeatedly go on pilgrimage. By means of spiritual manifestations of pilgrimage, one will improve the attributes of generosity, mercy, and compassion. Such people’s hands and heart will be opened; and they willingly give charity from the blessings of Allah for His sake.”
As it is stated in a verse:
“By no means shall you attain to righteousness until you spend (benevolently) out of what you love; and whatever thing you spend, Allah surely knows it.” (Al-i Imran 3; 92) so the important matter is:
- To sacrifice the will to the contentment of Allah:
The real object of sacrificing an animal during pilgrimage is to remember the submission of Abraham (peace be upon him) and his son Ishmael (peace be upon him), to get benefit from the Divine wisdom hidden in their story and to keep the soul aware of the necessity to worship Allah sincerely and piously. In other words, one should be in a similar mood as those who can strip their souls from their worldly existence and of those who do not assume any existence in them, submit themselves completely to Allah the Almighty, and are ready to be burned in Divine love. In fact, Allah the Almighty says in the Qur’an:
“It is neither their flesh nor their blood that reaches Allah: it is your piety that reaches Him …” (al-Hajj 22; 37)
Therefore, we should think how Abraham (peace be upon him) sacrificed his son and his son Ishmael (peace be upon him) willingly presented his life. We need to think how much we can sacrifice of our lives and wealth, and how much we conform to the characteristics of the believers stated in the verse: “Allah hath bought from the believers their lives and their wealth because the Garden will be theirs.” (al-Tawba 9; 111) To be able to make such sacrifices there is a requirement that we have to fulfill:
- Throwing stones at the Devil and at our inner selves:
As we mentioned before stoning the Devil starts primarily with stoning the Satan inside us. Stoning the Devil is the remembrance of how Abraham (peace be upon him), Ishmael (peace be upon him), and Hagar threw stones at the Devil and drove him away because of his attempt to make them hesitate in their faith.
We should always question and ask ourselves how much we are able to stone our hesitations, doubts and mistakes; how many lessons we may get from the sincerity and righteousness of Abraham, Ishmael and Hagar at the time when they stoned the Devil; and how much such states affect our spirituality.
The spiritual state and level which a servant hopes to reach is:
- To be in a continuous state of praying and remembering Allah the Almighty:
Allah the Almighty says in the Qur’an:
“…Then when you pour down from (mount) Arafat, celebrate the praises of Allah at the Sacred Monument, and celebrate His praises as He has directed you, even though, before this, you went astray.” (al- Baqara 2; 198)
“And when you have completed your devotions, then remember Allah as you remember your fathers or with a livelier remembrance. But of mankind is he who says: “our Lord! Give unto us in the world,” and he has no portion in the Hereafter.” (al-Baqara 2; 200)
Indeed the talbiya٭, which is ordered to be repeated during a pilgrimage, also suggests us to be in continuous state of praying and remembrance. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said that:
“There is no believer who recites talbiya and the rocks, trees and earth around him do not participate in his talbiyah. This participation continues till the end of the world in this and that direction (just then the Prophet (peace be upon him) was pointing at his right and left).”(Tirmidhi, Hajj, 14/828)
Talbiyah is so important to settle the state of remembrance and prayer in the heart that it is ordered to be performed loudly while all other individual acts of worship are done silently. In this way a believer keeps himself and the people around him busy with remembrance of Allah and praying.
Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) expressed in one of his sayings:
“Gabriel came to me and commanded me to order my Companions and the people with me to raise their voices in talbiyah.” (Abu Dawud, Manasiq, 26/1814)
In another saying our beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) explained to us how to converse so as to maintain the state of continuous remembrance and praying in those sacred places:
“Circumambulation around the Ka’bah is similar to performing ritual prayer except that you may talk during circumambulation. Therefore, whoever speaks during circumambulation should speak about goodness.” (Tirmidhi, Hajj, 112)
By adhering to the principles I have enumerated so far we can all hope to attain that.
- Our souls taste the Divine forgiveness, benevolence, and rewards:
Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said that,
“(The fulfillment of) Umra is expiation for the sins committed (between it and the previous one). And the reward of Hajj Mabrur (the one accepted by Allah) is nothing short of Paradise.”(Bukhari, Umrah, 1)
The desire of every believer who reaches these sacred places must be to fulfill their duty perfectly and be deserving to be among those who go back to their houses as sinless as the day they were born. In this regard Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) as saying:
“He who came to this House (the Ka’bah) (with the intention of performing Pilgrimage), and neither spoke indecently nor did he act wickedly would return free from sin as on the very first day his mother bore him.”(Muslim, Hajj, 438)
This good news is of course applicable for the believers who perform an accepted Hajj, or a pilgrimage which is filled with goodness and virtues from its beginning to the end.
As it is emphasized in some sayings of the Prophet (peace be upon him), all sins except “the ones about human rights” will be forgiven as result of an accepted pilgrimage. Allah the Almighty is the Owner of forgiveness, but the rights of human beings are left to the Hereafter in order to be taken care of.
However one should not misunderstand the meaning of this good news about such a general amnesty; because we do not have certain information about whether or not unfulfilled prayers, fasting and alms giving can be regarded under the category of the sins that will be forgiven. A believer must try to perform these obligations till the end of his life. There are two levels of responsibility held by a servant for not performing his acts of worship:
- Responsibility of not fulfilling them
- And, even if he performs them after their required time, he or she is still responsible for not fulfilling them in their required time.
Even if Allah the Almighty forgives the latter responsibility, we will still be responsible for our unfulfilled acts of worship. This is why one should perform his obligations even after its required time passes. In the case of alms giving, one should also calculate the difference of inflation and add it to ones debt. Even then it is also necessary to ask forgiveness of Allah for not performing them in time.
This is why those who set out for the journey of pilgrimage are advised to pay their debt, if there is any, to ask forgiveness from those whose rights he violated and to perform their unfulfilled prayers, fasting and give their alms giving as soon as possible. Trusting the general amnesty of pilgrimage, we should not show negligence and looseness in fulfilling our responsibilities and violate other people’s rights. We have to do everything we can and if there are still obligations left after that, then we can ask the forgiveness of our Lord Almighty and take refuge in His mercy.
The sign of an accepted pilgrimage is that the pilgrim maintains his spiritual purity that he gains during pilgrimage and stays on the straight path after the pilgrimage. A believer should not show weakness in performing his responsibilities by trusting on being forgiven as a result of his pilgrimage. He or she should never forget that this world is but a testing place. As it was stated in one of the sayings of the Prophet (peace be upon him), there are men who do the deeds of the people of Paradise till there is only a step between himself and Paradise, and then he or she does the deeds of the people of the Fire and enters the fire. Unfortunately history is filled with examples of such slipping. Accordingly, a believer should live between hope and fear and apply the verse “And serve your Lord till the inevitable (death) comes unto you.” (al-Hijr 15; 99) as the principle of his or her life.
The most significant reward of a pilgrimage is that it first brings the contentment of Allah the Almighty. It also develops love among believers. In fact, pilgrimage takes place in a blessed and magnificent atmosphere in which the endless mercy of Allah manifests itself, and believers, forgiven by that Divine mercy may join together in the excitement of faith. Many believers from different countries, different backgrounds, colors, languages, customs and lifestyles, manifest a marvelous scene of unity around the Ka’bah. Love and feelings of beauty and brotherhood make the believers disregard the mortal and relative differences among them. Such feelings turn the believers into a single beating heart. Those who believe experience a beautiful brotherhood in the peace and tranquility of the unity of their souls. A properly performed Hajj, or Hajj al-Mabrur, brings to the pilgrim’s life not just the good news of general amnesty but also praiseworthy characteristics such as consciousness of a sense of responsibility, forgiveness, keeping body and heart pure all the time, brotherhood of Islam, being aware of the fact that piety is the only measure of superiority in Islam, sensitivity to earning only lawful gains, trust in Allah, submission and sincerity. These are some of the rewards of the pilgrimage in this life and in the Hereafter. The rewards are limitless.
Therefore, pilgrimage is not just one of the requirements of Islam but also it is something which strengthens the social and political aspects of this great religion. Pilgrimage stands before us as a great monument of the world-embracing nature of Islam.
 See Qasimi, M. Jamal al-Din, Zubdat al-Ihya, Istanbul, 1999, p. 94
 ٭Allahu akbar or Allah is the Greatest
 ٭٭La ilaha illallah or There is no god but Allah
 Topbaş, Musa, Allâh Dostunun Dünyâsından, İstanbul, 1999, p. 112.
 ٭ The Arabic phrase “Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik Labbaika la sharika laka labbaik inna’l hamda wa’l ni’mata laka wa’l mulk la sharika laka.”
 See Bukhari, Qadar, 1